The prostate gland resides in the pelvic canal and produces the fluid that nourishes sperm. Prostatic cancer, although rare, occurs more commonly in older intact male dogs. Prostatic cancer does not appear to be influenced by testosterone. In fact, neutered dogs with prostatic enlargement have a higher likelihood of having a malignant (cancerous) disease. Cancer of the prostate gland tends to be aggressive in nature; it spreads to the local lymph nodes and the spine near the prostate gland. Dogs with prostatic disease, benign or malignant, have similar clinical signs: straining to urinate and/or defecate, blood in the urine, constipation, and/or spinal pain. Definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer requires physical and rectal examinations, an abdominal ultrasound, and a biopsy of the prostate. Treatment for prostatic cancer uses a combination of anti-inflammatory drugs, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Surgical removal of prostate tumors is not commonly done due to the high incidence of complications (e.g.: urinary incontinence).